**Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)** are the same as computers. They only understand two conditions; on and off. (1 or 0 / Hi or Low/ etc.) This is known as binary. The PLC will only understand binary but we need to display, understand and use other numbering systems to make things work. Let’s look at the following common numbering systems.

**Binary** has a base of two (2). Base means the number of symbols used. In binary the symbols are 1 or 0. Each binary symbol can be referred to as a bit. Putting multiple bits together will give you something that looks like this: 100101112. The 2 represents the number of symbols/binary notation. Locations of the bits will indicate weight of the number. The weight of the number is just the number to the power of the position. Positions always start at 0. The right hand bit is the ‘least significant bit’ and the left hand bit is the ‘most significant bit’.

Let’s look back at our example to determine what the value of the binary number is:

100101112 =

We start with the least significant bit and work our way to the most significant bit.

1 x 2^{0 }= 1 x 1 = 1

1 x 2^{1 }= 1 x 2 = 2

1 x 2^{2 }= 1 x 2 x 2 = 4

0 x 2^{3 }= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0

1 x 2^{4 }= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16

0 x 2^{5 }= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0

0 x 2^{6 }= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0

1 x 2^{7 }= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 128

100101112 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 16 + 128

100101112 = 151

Note that the we just converted the binary number to our decimal numbering system. The decimal numbering system is not written with a base value of 10 because this is universally understood.

To be sure we have the concept down, let’s take a look at our decimal numbering system the same way as we did the binary.

**Decimal** has a base of ten (10). The symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

15110 =

1 x 10^{0 }= 1 x 1 = 1

5 x 10^{1 }= 5 x 10 = 50

1 x 10^{2 }= 1 x 10 x 10 = 100

15110 = 1 + 50 + 100

151 = 151

**Hexadecimal** has a base of sixteen (16). The symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F. Hexadecimal is used to represent binary numbers. F16 = 11112

Every for bits of binary represent one hexadecimal digit.

In our original binary number we now can convert this to hexadecimal.

100101112

The least significant four bits are:

01112 =

1 x 2^{0 }= 1 x 1 = 1

1 x 2^{1 }= 1 x 2 = 2

1 x 2^{2 }= 1 x 2 x 2 = 4

0 x 2^{3 }= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0

01112 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 0 = 716

The most significant four bits are:

10012 =

1 x 2^{0 }= 1 x 1 = 1

0 x 2^{1 }= 0 x 2 = 0

0 x 2^{2 }= 0 x 2 x 2 = 0

1 x 2^{3 }= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 8

1001

2 = 1 + 0 + 0 + 8 = 9

16
Therefore:

10010111

2 = 97

16
We can now convert this hexadecimal number back into decimal

97

16 =

7 x 16^{0 }= 7 x 1 = 7

9 x 16^{1 }= 9 x 16 = 144

9716 = 7 + 144 = 151

The following chart will show all of the combinations for 4 bits (nibble) of binary. Its shows the Binary, Decimal and Hexadecimal (Hex) values. It is interesting to not that Hex is used because you still have only one digit (Place Holder) to represent the nibble of information.

Binary |
Decimal |
Hexadecimal |
Binary |
Decimal |
Hexadecimal |

0000 |
00 |
0 |
1000 |
08 |
8 |

0001 |
01 |
1 |
1001 |
09 |
9 |

0010 |
02 |
2 |
1010 |
10 |
A |

0011 |
03 |
3 |
1011 |
11 |
B |

0100 |
04 |
4 |
1100 |
12 |
C |

0101 |
05 |
5 |
1101 |
13 |
D |

0110 |
06 |
6 |
1110 |
14 |
E |

0111 |
07 |
7 |
1111 |
15 |
F |

**ASCII** (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Two nibbles (8 bits of data) together form a byte. A byte is what computers (PLC) use to store and use individual information. So it will take one unique byte to represent each individual numbers, letters (upper and lower case), punctuation etc.

www.AsciiTable.com
Example:

Chr ‘A’ = 4116 = 010000012

Chr ‘a’ = 6116 = 011000012

Chr ‘5’ = 3516 = 001101012

Each time you hit a key on your keyboard, the following 8 bits of data get sent.

A **word** is** **made up of two bytes, or 4 nibbles, or 16 bits of data. Words are used in the PLC for holding information. The word can also be referred to as an integer.

**Long word / Double word** is made up of 4 bytes, or 8 nibbles, or 32 bits of data. Long words are used for instructions in the PLC like math.

Hey what about negative numbers?

So far we have talked about unsigned words. (Positive numbers)

Signed words can hold negative numbers. Bit 15 (most significant bit) of a word is used to determine if the word is negative or not.

The following table shows you the signed vs unsigned numbers that can be represented in the PLC.

HEX |
8000 |
BFFF |
FFFE |
FFFF |
0000 |
3FFF |
7FFE |
7FFF |

Signed |
-32768 |
-16385 |
-0002 |
-0001 |
00000 |
16383 |
32766 |
32767 |

Unsigned |
32768 |
49151 |
65534 |
65535 |
00000 |
16383 |
32766 |
32767 |

**Memory retentiveness:**

When working with PLC’s look at the memory tables to determine what will happen if power is removed from the device. Will the bits go all off or retain their prior state?

Usually there will be areas that can be used in the PLC for both conditions.

As you can see PLC numbering systems and computers are very much related and it all boils down to individual bits turning on and off. The interpretation of these bits will determine what the value will be.

Reference:

Let me know your thoughts, or questions that you have on PLC numbering systems.

Thank you,

Garry

If you’re like most of my readers, you’re committed to learning about technology. Numbering systems used in PLC’s are not difficult to learn and understand. We will walk through the numbering systems used in PLCs. This includes Bits, Decimal, Hexadecimal, ASCII and Floating Point.

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