Category Archives: PLC

Here’s a Quick Way to Convert Grey Code into Binary for PLC

Grey Code
Grey Code is used because only one bit of data will change at a time. The following chart shows the conversion of Grey Code to Binary.

Number Binary Code Grey Code Number Binary Code Grey Code
0 0000 0000 8 1000 1100
1 0001 0001 9 1001 1101
2 0010 0011 10 1010 1111
3 0011 0010 11 1011 1110
4 0100 0110 12 1100 1010
5 0101 0111 13 1101 1011
6 0110 0101 14 1110 1001
7 0111 0100 15 1111 1000

It is important for absolute encoders because if the power is interrupted the encoder will know where it is within the one bit.

Example:
Power is interrupted when the encoder is between 7 and 8. If we are looking at Binary Code all of the bits would be effected and we would not be sure as to what number we are looking at for the encoder. Therefore we have lost position. In Grey Code only one bit changes so we will still be able to tell if we were on 7 or 8 if the power was interrupted.

The following sample PLC program will convert 4 bit grey code into binary code.
This code was written in an Automation Direct PLC software called Do-more Designer.

Do-more Designer Software
How to use video’s for Do-more Designer Software

Contact me for the above program. I will be happy to email it to you.
Thank you,
Garry



If you’re like most of my readers, you’re committed to learning about technology. Numbering systems used in PLC’s are not difficult to learn and understand. We will walk through the numbering systems used in PLCs. This includes Bits, Decimal, Hexadecimal, ASCII and Floating Point.

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Use the information to inform other people how numbering systems work. Sign up now.

The ‘Robust Data Logging for Free’ eBook is also available as a free download. The link is included when you subscribe to ACC Automation.

What Everybody Ought to Know About PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) Numbering Systems

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are the same as computers. They only understand two conditions; on and off. (1 or 0 / Hi or Low/ etc.) This is known as binary. The PLC will only understand binary but we need to display, understand and use other numbering systems to make things work. Let’s look at the following common numbering systems.

Binary has a base of two (2). Base means the number of symbols used. In binary the symbols are 1 or 0. Each binary symbol can be referred to as a bit. Putting multiple bits together will give you something that looks like this: 100101112. The 2 represents the number of symbols/binary notation. Locations of the bits will indicate weight of the number. The weight of the number is just the number to the power of the position. Positions always start at 0. The right hand bit is the ‘least significant bit’ and the left hand bit is the ‘most significant bit’.

Let’s look back at our example to determine what the value of the binary number is:
100101112 =
We start with the least significant bit and work our way to the most significant bit.
1 x 2= 1 x 1 = 1
1 x 2= 1 x 2 = 2

1 x 2= 1 x 2 x 2 = 4
0 x 2= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0
1 x 2= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16
0 x 2= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0
0 x 2= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0
1 x 2= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 128
 100101112  = 1 + 2  + 4 + 16 + 128
 100101112  = 151
Note that the we just converted the binary number to our decimal numbering system. The decimal numbering system is not written with a base value of 10 because this is universally understood.
To be sure we have the concept down, let’s take a look at our decimal numbering system the same way as we did the binary.
Decimal has a base of ten (10). The symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
15110 =
1 x 10= 1 x 1 = 1

5 x 10= 5 x 10 = 50
1 x 10= 1 x 10 x 10 = 100
15110 = 1 + 50 + 100
151 = 151

Hexadecimal has a base of sixteen (16). The symbols are  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F. Hexadecimal is used to represent binary numbers. F16 = 1111
Every for bits of binary represent one hexadecimal digit.
In our original binary number we now can convert this to hexadecimal.
100101112
The least significant four bits are:
01112 =
1 x 2= 1 x 1 = 1
1 x 2= 1 x 2 = 2

1 x 2= 1 x 2 x 2 = 4

0 x 2= 0 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 0

0111= 1 + 2 + 4 + 0 = 716
The most significant four bits are:
1001=
1 x 2= 1 x 1 = 1
0 x 2= 0 x 2 = 0
0 x 2= 0 x 2 x 2 = 0

1 x 2= 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 8

1001= 1 + 0 + 0 + 8 = 916
Therefore:
100101112 = 9716 
We can now convert this hexadecimal number back into decimal
9716 =

7 x 16= 7 x 1 = 7
9 x 16= 9 x 16 = 144
9716 = 7 + 144 = 151

The following chart will show all of the combinations for 4 bits (nibble) of binary. Its shows the Binary, Decimal and Hexadecimal (Hex) values. It is interesting to not that Hex is used because you still have only one digit (Place Holder) to represent the nibble of information.

Binary Decimal Hexadecimal Binary Decimal Hexadecimal
0000 00 0 1000 08 8
0001 01 1 1001 09 9
0010 02 2 1010 10 A
0011 03 3 1011 11 B
0100 04 4 1100 12 C
0101 05 5 1101 13 D
0110 06 6 1110 14 E
0111 07 7 1111 15 F
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Two nibbles (8 bits of data) together form a byte. A byte is what computers (PLC) use to store and use individual information. So it will take one unique byte to represent each individual numbers, letters (upper and lower case), punctuation etc. www.AsciiTable.com
Example:
Chr ‘A’ = 4116 = 010000012
Chr ‘a’ = 6116 = 011000012
Chr ‘5’ = 3516 = 001101012
Each time you hit a key on your keyboard, the following 8 bits of data get sent.
A word is made up of two bytes, or 4 nibbles, or 16 bits of data. Words are used in the PLC for holding information. The word can also be referred to as an integer.
Long word / Double word is made up of 4 bytes, or 8 nibbles, or 32 bits of data. Long words are used for instructions in the PLC like math.
Hey what about negative numbers?
So far we have talked about unsigned words. (Positive numbers)
Signed words can hold negative numbers. Bit 15 (most significant bit) of a word is used to determine if the word is negative or not.
The following table shows you the signed vs unsigned numbers that can be represented in the PLC.
HEX
8000
BFFF
FFFE
FFFF
0000
3FFF
7FFE
7FFF
Signed
-32768
-16385
-0002
-0001
00000
16383
32766
32767
Unsigned
32768
49151
65534
65535
00000
16383
32766
32767
Memory retentiveness:
When working with PLC’s look at the memory tables to determine what will happen if power is removed from the device. Will the bits go all off or retain their prior state?
Usually there will be areas that can be used in the PLC for both conditions.
As you can see PLC numbering systems and computers are very much related and it all boils down to individual bits turning on and off. The interpretation of these bits will determine what the value will be.

Reference:
Let me know your thoughts, or questions that you have on PLC numbering systems.

Thank you,
Garry



If you’re like most of my readers, you’re committed to learning about technology. Numbering systems used in PLC’s are not difficult to learn and understand. We will walk through the numbering systems used in PLCs. This includes Bits, Decimal, Hexadecimal, ASCII and Floating Point.

To get this free article, subscribe to my free email newsletter.


Use the information to inform other people how numbering systems work. Sign up now.

The ‘Robust Data Logging for Free’ eBook is also available as a free download. The link is included when you subscribe to ACC Automation.